To begin with, their the term zoroastrianism, coined in the 19th century in a colonial context, is inspired by a. Avesta, sacred book of zoroastrianism containing its cosmogony, law, and liturgy, the. Translated by james darmesteter from sacred books of the east, american edition, 1898. The zoroastrian biblical connections influence of zoroastrianism in other religions. Avesta, the bible of zoroaster wikisource, the free online library. The indoiranian group whose members composed the zoroastrian scriptures, the avesta, and the hindu scriptures such as the vedas, called themselves aryans airyaairyan in the avesta and aryaaryan in the vedas.
To the biblical student, the avesta and the religion of zoroaster have more than. The holy book of zoroastrianism is the zend avesta. Books on zoroastrianism and zoroaster ahura mazda find here selected list of books on zoroastrianism, life and teachings of zoroaster or zarathushtra, zoroastrian beliefs, zend avesta, parsees, indo iranian connection, ancient history, persia and more. Religion referred to law both mazdaens and hindus refer to religion as law. Zoroastrianism or mazdayasna is one of the worlds oldest continuously practiced religions. The languages of the two scriptures, the zoroastrian avesta and hindu rig veda, are similar but not identical, indicating that at the time of their composition, the people of the avesta and the rig veda were related and close neighbours in a fashion similar to two provinces within one country provinces where the people spoke two dialects.
Mazdaen scholars zubin mehta and gulshan majeed had noted a similarity of kashmiri customs with zoroastrian ones. Apr 16, 2014 the avesta is the holy book of zoroastrianism. Abortion has been explicitly mentioned in zoroastrian holy scriptures including avesta, shayastnashayast and arda viraf nameh. So whatever is written in history about the 3000 plus year old zend avesta is derived from verbal accounts of 17th century parsi scholars, contemporary texts and a th century book that was written in pahlavi language and translated to sanskrit. Its religious core is a collection of songs or hymns, the gathas, thought to be in the main the very words of zoroaster.
Lastly, the wise lord made his own holy spirit the protector of the mankind. The avestas of zarathustrazoroaster are the holy books of zoroastrianism. It is a cherished possession of every devoted zoroastrian. The term avesta is from the 9th10thcentury works of zoroastrian tradition in which the word appears as zoroastrian middle persian abestag, book pahlavi. Discussions of zarathustra, ahura mazda and the avesta. Preface to the english edition of the khordeh avesta bamayeni the oldest zoroastrian religious scripture, as preserved at present, is known as the avesta. A fire temple in zoroastrianism is the place of worship for zoroastrians, often called dare mehr persian or agiyari gujarati.
Zoroastrians, their religious beliefs and practices, london, 1979, pg 17. Sanjana 1904 avesta, the religious books of the parsees from professor spiegels german translation of the original manuscripts 1864 early religious poetry of persia by j. A section of this avesta is known as the khordeh avesta which means the smaller i. The visprat is a lesser liturgical scripture, containing homages to a number of zoroastrian. This book should be at least 25% bigger than it is, and the font size along with it. Not only was it a cohort of the ancient vedic hinduism, but also had a huge influence on the development of judaism and christianity. Jafarey, the latest publication by books n bits is just out. Zoroastrianism download books, sacred, spiritual texts. Prophet muhammad in zoroastrian and hindu scriptures. In the avestan and hindu texts, airyana vaeja or arya varta was a beautiful.
The timeline goes from the 2nd millennium bce to the present. Vendidad videvdad or laws against the demons avesta the sacred books of zoroastrianism, book 3. Jan 16, 2020 khordeh avesta khordeh avesta bamayeni. According to zoroastrianism, followers can pray as often as they like. Aug 24, 2015 the avestas of zarathustrazoroaster are the holy books of zoroastrianism. What is the religious book of zoroastrianism and islam. Zoroastrianism has one book that is considered sacred and that contains all the stories, lessons, and ideals that zoroastrians live by. The language of the avesta is best designated simply as avestan, not as zend, for the reasons given in the beginning of this. The avesta contains scriptures, versus, prayers, and. This includes the original words of their founder zarathushtra, preserved in a series of five hymns, called the gathas. Of course, there is a tendency for bringing in reincarnation from hindu philosophies. The principal text in the liturgical group is the yasna, which takes its name from the yasna ceremony, zoroastrianism s primary act of worship, and at which the yasna text is recited.
An old edition of the avesta with zand interspersed is called the zend avesta or zand avesta. It is a cherished possession of every devoted zoroastrian household. It also includes information about the avestan language, and other useful information for students of zoroastrian religion. Jul 29, 2015 wonder if youd be interested in an english translation of what we pray and what the avesta is all about. If so here is a copy in pdf format for your reading pleasure and understanding. Judaism under the exile was influenced by zoroastrian teachings and furnishes us with points of resemblance between the. Jan 16, 2007 here is an incredible post that lists the similarities between rig veda and avesta the holy book of zoroastrians. The zorastrian holy book is called the avesta and it is a compilation of all zoroastrian prayers, which were composed over several centuries, some dating back to more than 3500 years. Is zoroastrianism the oldest religion in the world. In the modern era, some mazdaen clerics had visited kashmir, who include azar kaiwan and his dozen. Zoroasters denunciations of the former gods and old ways, his economic imperative to settle and farm the land, apparently were. Younger avestan periods of the history of zoroastrianism.
Jun 20, 2017 nawruz, also spelled nowruz as well as other variants, is an ancient persian holiday celebrating the new year. This conquest 637651 was fatal to the iranian religion, and caused zoroastrianism to be supplanted by mohammedanism and the avesta by the koran. Other names for zoroastrianism are mazdaism and parsiism. Pdf hinduism and zoroastrianism michael stausberg academia. The sacred book of zoroastrianism is called the avesta, and has two main sections. It, like many religious texts, was originally composed orally and was learned from memory for centuries until it was finally transcribed in sassanian times. The latter represent the basic source of the religion.
As an instance, both of these religions are prolife. Find the top 100 most popular items in amazon books best sellers. Vohu manah, the good mind, was the fifth holy spirit. The description of zoroastrianism reflects the authors personal. It is believed that a lot of the texts have been lost and some texts from the 9th11th centuries are the ones which make references and site quotations of earlier works. Zoroaster composed the most important portion of this book, the gathas. The corpus of religious texts in zoroastrianism is called the avesta, which is written in the otherwise unattested avestan language and it includes the yasna name of the primary act of worship among zoroastrianism and the five gathas with the. Given that the islams birth was based on destroying the idol worshippers, and. A high god of prezoroastrian iran that survived the advent of zoroastrianism and also continues to have a presence in the vedas of hindu literature in india. They were opposed by the demonic spirit angra mainyu, the head of evil forces in the world. The holy book is on a throne positioned at the front of the hall. Why are there so many similarities between zoroastrianism. It is a great myth that avestan resembles vedic religion. There is a concept of yasnasanskrit equivalentyajna in zoroastrianism.
He is identical with the greek ouranos and the ahuramazda of the avesta. Avesta eschatology compared with the books of daniel and revelations by l. The literature appears to designate the period and condition of the church. Some, however, preferred exile and found among the hindus a place of. The holy book of zoroastrianism is the avesta, which contains the gathas, or the seventeen hymns by zoroaster, and the the younger avesta, which includes commentaries, myths, ritual descriptions, and more. Zoroastrianism, in spite of its small current number of adherents, has played a huge role in the study of comparative. Zoroastrianism is thought to have arisen in the late second millennium b. Books on zoroastrianism and zoroaster the real hindu website. The gathas, the most ancient, describe zoroasters followers often as depressed and endangered. Eirciv 102a, spring 2006 vi february 7, 2006 basic bibliography some useful literature boyce, m. We provide the complete text of the extant avesta, the most ancient scriptures of zoroastrianism, as well as many pahlavi scriptures. There is also some later zoroastrian literature in modern persian, comprising works like the zartushtnamah book of zoroaster, the saddar hundred doors, or chapters, the rivayats traditional treatises.
Zoroastrianism was founded by the prophet zoroaster in the sixth century bce and was one of the first monotheistic faiths in the world. Mills 1908 avesta, pahlavi, and ancient persian studies by p. A section of this avesta is known as the khordeh avesta which means the smaller or selected avesta. They form a middle section of the chief liturgical part of the canon, the yasna, which contains the rite of the preparation and sacrifice of haoma. The acorn recently had a post on the divergence of persian and indian cultures over values suggesting that persians went for morals while indians went for might. The avesta texts fall into several different categories, arranged either by dialect, or by usage. The translations in most widespread circulation are the english language and farsi language versions, although it was originally in the avestan language. Zoroastrianism was a monotheistic and messianic religion centered around the duality of good and evil and founded on the teachings of its prophet, zoroaster. The zoroastrian and hindu scriptures are the only known ancient texts that contain references to. Long ago, zoroastrians believed there were more gods. The extant avesta is all that remains of a much larger body of scripture. Learn vocabulary, terms, and more with flashcards, games, and other study tools. Vendidad videvdad or laws against the demons avesta. The avesta contains hymn written by zoroaster called.
In this context it will be useful to see the relation between avesta, avestan, rigveda, and dates. This book is called the avesta and is actually a compilation collection of writings, and wasnt put together until a time period called the sassanid dynasty, which took place between the years 226641 ce. Nov 12, 2015 our present avesta is essentially the work of this redaction, although important sections of the text have been lost since then, especially after the arabs conquered persia. You will find here a selected list of books on zoroastrianism, life and teachings of zoroaster or zarathushtra, zoroastrian beliefs, zend avesta, parsees, indo iranian connection, ancient history and persia. Ascribed to the teachings of the iranianspeaking spiritual leader zoroaster also known. Sometimes called the official religion of ancient persia, zoroastrianism is one of the worlds oldest surviving religions, with teachings older than buddhism, older than judaism, and far older than christianity or islam. Zend avesta think of book wearing vest monotheistic. It may fairly be said that the sacred books of no other people, outside the light of the. It is one of only two festivals mentioned by zoroaster in the avesta, the only holy zoroastrian scriptures written by zoroaster himself. This book should be at least 25% bigger than it is, and the.
Avesta is a repository of oral texts, transmitted orally in fixed linguistic form until it was written down. A section of this avesta is known as the khordehavesta which means the smaller or selected avesta. Today hara parvat is revered by hindus as a sacred mountain. It is so named because of the language in which it was written. Arguably the worlds first monotheistic faith, its one of the oldest religions still in. This is the holy book of zoroastrianism itself and its printed here in a book that is just way too small. The zoroastrian book of holy scriptures is called the avesta. Frequently asked questions on the zoroastrian religion and scriptures avesta. There are, likewise, scattered passages in the vedas, brahmanas, smriti, and puranas that refer to the iranians and their religion. What survives today is estimated to be only a quarter of the original 21 books of the avesta. Avesta, sacred book of zoroastrianism containing its cosmogony, law, and liturgy, the teachings of the prophet zoroaster zarathushtra.
The holy book of zoroastrianism is known as the avesta. Hinduism and zoroastrianism have strong historical bonds and systems. The oldest zoroastrian religious scripture, as preserved at present, is known as the avesta. The avesta is the main holy book in zoroastrianism. The zend avesta pahlavi texts links zoroastrianism, in spite of its small current number of adherents, has played a huge role in the study of comparative religion. The book describes in brief, in 86 pages, the tentime contents of the extant avesta, which, with the exception of the gathas of zarathushtra, is still a closed book, a mystery to many admirers and inquirers. The extant avesta is all that remains of a much larger body of scripture, apparently zoroasters transformation of a very ancient tradition. So, the core religion of zoroastrianism should be antivedic.
It is a multitendency faith centered on a dualistic cosmology of good and evil and an eschatology predicting the ultimate conquest of evil with theological elements of henotheism, monotheismmonism, and polytheism. Nawruz, also spelled nowruz as well as other variants, is an ancient persian holiday celebrating the new year. Something for enhancing the knowledge of our young ones. Perspectives of hinduism and zoroastrianism on abortion. This is the book of daily prayers of the zoroastrians. Both zoroastrianism and hinduism have similar origins, pay homage to the same spiritual seers, venerate the same gods and even have the same verses throughout the early scriptures. The texts which are most important are called avesta. In hinduism, the benevolent beings are called devas and the malevolent ones are asuras, while in zoroastrianism, the malevolent are daevas, and benevolent are ah. Zoroaster taught that the forces of good in the world served the supreme god ahura mazda and his holy spirit spenta mainyu. This book is useful for the later history of the zoroastrians. Since colonial times, parsis have vedic and the avestan texts. Zoroastrianism and hinduism hindupedia, the hindu encyclopedia. Zoroastrianism is an ancient persian religion that may have originated as early as 4,000 years ago. Here is an incredible post that lists the similarities between rig veda and avesta the holy book of zoroastrians.
The other holy spirit, ameretat, the immortality, became the protector of plants. Navjote the public ceremony of inititation into the zoroastrian faith into the zoroastrian faith. A high god of pre zoroastrian iran that survived the advent of zoroastrianism and also continues to have a presence in the vedas of hindu literature in india. That book was a sanskrit translation of a pahlavi language version of zoroastrian holy texts. The second the younger avesta contains rituals, laws and observances. The zoroastrian scriptures are called the avesta and the classical explanations, interpretations and commentaries are called the zend or zand. Avesta, the the catholic encyclopedia religionfacts. Most of the texts in these archives are extremely rare. A peculiar and interesting difference is that of benevolent and malevolent beings. The avesta speaks of turning of the wheel, which max muller himself thinks smacks of buddhism as he writes. Holy books of hinduism include the rig veda, and the bhagavadgita. And asha vahishta, the justice, became the guardian of fire. Zoroastrianism lost its claim to religious grammatical and lexical similarities so much so.
The wheel is a sacred symbol in zoroastrianism as in hinduism. And forget about any increased price for doing that it would be worth it to have a truly readable book. In terms of differences, zoroastrianism is a religion boasting a god, a prophet, and a holy book, while hinduism lacks all these features. Differences and similarities between hinduism and zoroastrianism and their. Later priests would add to the gathas, in the avestan language, to make up the rest of the zoroastrian holy book, now known as the avesta or zend avesta. This part of the site has complete online editions of the sacred books of the easts zoroastrian texts. Lets discuss about the similarities given by you between both religion. Zoroastrianism rose circa 6,000 bce to 4,000 bce and remained a dominant religious tradition until the prophet. He quotes rajesh kochhars observations on the similarities between avesta, the sacred texts of zoroastrianism and rig veda. In the zoroastrian religion, fire see atar, together with clean water see aban, are agents of ritual purity.1047 1270 623 120 1439 749 612 784 1298 531 1622 890 1250 978 901 1179 1099 803 754 628 1107 542 1051 1454 38 1258 1477 1094 574 547 742 892 681 1068 323 722 760 887 1288 1131 276 493 97 972 330 298 423